Ruoff GE, Beery GB. Chronic pain: Characteristics, assessment, and treatment plans. Postgrad Med 1985; 78:91-97.
Eisenberg DM, Kessler RD, Foster C, et al. Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:246-262.
Lake D. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation: An overview and its application in the treatment of sports injuries. Sports Medicine 1992; 13:320-336.
Delitto E Snyder-Mackler L. Two theories of muscle stength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Physical Therapy 1990; 70:158-164.
Leo KC, Dostal WF, Bossen DG, et al. Eflect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation characteristics On clinical pain. Physical Therapy 1986; 6:200-205.
Delitto A, Strube MJ, Shulman AD, et al. study of discomfort with electrical stimulation. Physical Therapy 1992; 72:410-424.
Melzack R, Wall P. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 1965; 150:971.
Bauer W. Electrical treatment of severe head and neck cancer pain. Arch Otolaryngol 1983; 109:382-3.
Kirsch D, Lerner F. Innovations In pain management: a practical guide for cilnicians. In: Weiner RL (ed) Electromedicine 1990; Deutsche Press; 23:1-29.
Cheng N, Van Hoff H, Bockx E, et al. The effect of electric currents on ATP generation protein synthesis, and membrane transport in rat skin. Clin, Orthop 1982. 171:264-72.
Becker RO. The Body ELectric 1985; New York, William Morrow and Co, Inc.
Windsor RE, Lester JP, Herring SA. Electrical Stimulation in CIinical Practice. Physician & Sportsmedicine 1993; 21:85-93.
Reich JD, Tarjan PP Electrical stimulation of skin. Int J Derm 1990; 29:395-400.
Vodovnik L, Karba R. Treatment of chronic wounds by means of electric and electromagnetic fields. A literature review. Med Biol Engineer Comput 1992; 30:257-266.
Stanish WD, et al. The use of electricity in ligament and tendon repair. Physician & Sporismedicine 1985; 13:109-116.
Stanish Wn. Lai A. New concepts of rehabilitation following anterior cruciate reconstruction. Clin Sports Med 1993; Jan;12(1):25-58.
Kulig K, Jarski R, Drewek E, et al. the effect of microcurrent stimulation on CPK and delayed onset muscle soreness. Phys ther 1991; 71:6(suppl).
Kaada B, Flatheim E, Woie L. low-frequency tranecutaneous nerve stimulation in mild/moderate hypertension. Clinical Physiology 1991; 11:161-168.
North RB, et al. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic, intractable pain: experience over two decades. Neurosurgery 1998; 32:384-395.
LeDoux MS, Langford KH. Spinal cord stimulation for the failed back syndrome. Spine 1993; 18:191-4.
Neumann V. Electrotherapy. Br J Rheumatol 1993; 32:1-3.
Wollersheim H, Van Zwieten PA Treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon. European Heart J 1993; 14:147-49.
Mulder, et al. TENS in Raynaud’s phenumenon. Angiology 1991; 42:414-17.
Engleberg M, Bauer W. Tanscutaneous electrical stimulation for tinnitus. Laryngoscope 1985; 95:1167-73.
Shulman A. Subjective idiopathic tinaitus: A unified plan of management. Am J Otolaryng 1992; 13:63-74.
Marion MS, Cevette MJ. Tinnitus. Mayo Clin Proc 1991; 66:614-20.
Ho RT, Jawan B, Fung ST, et al. Electro-acupuncture and postoperative emesis. Anaesthesia 1990; 45(4):327-9.
Crawford PR. Electronic dental anaesthesia. J Can Dent Assoc 1991; 57(6);497-9.
Reiss A Electronic dental anaesthesia. Surgery without the needle. Ont Dent 1991;68(10):13-7.
Roth PM, Thrash WJ. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for controlling pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement. A J Orthodontics 1986; 90:132-38.
King GE, Jacob RF, Martin JW. Electrotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen: promising treatments for postradiation complications. J Prosthetic Dent 1989; 62:331-334.
Barden RM, Sinkora GL. Bone stimulators for fusions and fractures. Orthoped Nursing 1991; 26:89-103.
Lavine LS, Grodzinsky AJ. Current concepts review. Electrical stimulation of bone repair. J Bone Joint Surg 1987; 69-A:626-630.
Harishorne E. On the causes and treatment of pseudarthrosis and especially that form of it sometimes called supernumerary joint. Am J Med 1841; 1:121-156.
Lente RW. Cases of un-united fracture treated by electricity. New York State J Med 1850; 5:317-19.
Becker RA, Marino AA. Electromagnetism and Life 1982; State University of New York Press, Albany.
Fukada E, Yasuda I. On the piezoelectric effect of bone. J Physiol Soc Japan 1957; 12:1158-62.
Bassett CAL, Becker RO. Generation of electrical potentials by bone in response to mechanical stress. Science 1962; 137:1063-1064.
Spadaro JA. Electrically stimulated bone growth in animals and man. Review of the literature. Clin Orthop 1977; 122:325-332.
Stiller MJ, et al. A portable pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) device to enhance healing of recalcitrant venous ulcers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br J Dermatol 1992; 127:147-54.
Lavine LS, et al. Electric enhancement of bone healing. Science 1972; 175:1118-21.
Paterson D. Treatment of nonunion with a constant direct current: A totally implantable system. Orthop Clin North Am 1984; 15:47-59.
Brighton CT. The treatment of non-unions with electricity. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 1981; 63:847-51.
Bassett CAL. The development and application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) for ununited fracture and arthrodesis. Orthop Clin North Am 1984; 15: 61-87.
Rubin CT, Mcleod KJ, Lanyon LE. Prevention of osteoporosis by pulsed electromagnetic fields. J Bone Joint Surg 1989; 71-A:411-417.
Mcleod KJ, Rubin CT. The effect of low-frequency electrical fields on osteogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg 1992; 74A:920-929.
Brighton CT, Pollack SR. Treatment of recalcitrant nonunion with a capacitively coupled electric field. J Bone Joint Surg 1985; 67A:577-85.
Brighton CT Pollack SR. Treatment of nonunion of the tibia with a capacitively coupled electric field. J Trauma 1984; 24:153-55.
Becker RO. Cross Currents 1990; Los Angeles. Jeremy B Tarcher, Inc. 50. Wilson DH. Treatment of soft tissue injuries by pulsed electrical energy. Br S Med 1972; 2:269-70.
Binder A, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis: A double blind controlled assessment. Lancet 1984; I:695.
Stanish WD. The use of electricity in ligament and tendon repair. Physician sports Med 1985; 13:108-116.
Nessler JP, Mass DP Direct current electrical stimulation of tendon healing in vitro. Clinical Orthopedics 1985; 217:303.
Becker RO. The bioelcctric factors in amphibian limb regeneration. J Bone Joint Surg 1961; 43A:643-656.
Illingsworth CM, Barker AT. Measurement of electrical currents emerging during the regeneration of amputated fingertips in children. Clin Nays Physiol Meas 1980 1:87-9.
Foulds IS, Barker AT. Human skin battery potentials and their possible role in wound healing. Br S Dermatol 1983; 109;515-522.
Jaffe LF, Vanable JW. Electric fields and wound healing. Clin Dermatol 1984; 2: 34-44.
Barker AT, Jaffe LF; Banable JW. The Glabrous epidermis of cavies contains a powerful battery. Am J Physiol 1982; 242:R358-66.
Falanga V. Occlusive wound dressings. Arch Dermatol 1988; 124:872-77.
Eaglstein WH, Mertz PM. New methed for assessing epidermal wound healing. The effects of triamcinolone acetonide and polyethylene film occlusion. J Invest Dermatol 1978; 71:382-384.
Falanga V, et al. Electrical stimulation increases the expression of fibroblast receptors for transforming growth factor-beta, abstracted, J Invest Dermatol 1987; 88: 488.
Alvarez OM, et al. The healing of superficial skin wounds is stimulated by external electrical current. J Invest Dermatol 1983; 81:144-48.
Falanga V; Eaglstein WH. The trap hypothesis of venous ulceration. Lancet 1993;341:1006-7.
Robinson KR. Digby’s receipts. Annals Med History 1925:7:216-19.
Jeran M, et al. PEMF stimulation of skin ulcers of venous origin in humans; preliminary report of a double blind study. J Bioelectr 1987: 6:181-88.
GoIdin H, et al. The effects of Diapulse on the healing of wounds: a double-blind randomized controlled trial in man. Br J Plast Surg 1981: 34:267-70.
Ieran M, et al. Effect of low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields on skin ulcers of venous origin in humans: a double blind study. J Orthop Res 1990; 8:276-82.
Mulder GD. Treatment of open-skin wounds with electric stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991; 72:815-7.
Carey, LC, Lepley D. Effect of continuous direct electric current on healing wounds. Surg-Forum 1962; 13:33-35.
Assimacopoulos D. Wound healing promotion by the use of negative electric current. Ann Surg 1968; 34:423-31.
Assimacopoulos D. Low intensity negative electric current in treatment of ulcers of leg due to chronic venous insufficiency: preliminary report of three cases. Am J Surg 1968; 115:683-687.
Wolcott LE, wheeler PC, Hardwicke HM, et al. Accelerated healing of skin ulcers by etectrotherapy. South Med J 1969; 62:795-801.
Gault WR, Gatesn PF. Use of low intensity direct current in management of ischemic skin ulcers. Phys Ther 1976; 56:265-69.
Carley PJ, Wainapel SF. Electrotherapy for acceleration of wound healing: Low intensity direct current. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985; 68:443-446.
Rowley BA, McKenna JM, chase GR, Wolcott LE. The influence of electrical current on an infecting microorganism in wounds. Ann NY Acad Sci 1974; 238:543-551.
Barron JJ, Jacobson WE. Treatment of decubitus ulcers: a new approach. Minn Med 1985; 68:103-105.
Lundeberg TC, Eriksson SV, Malm M. Electrical nerve stimulation improves healing of diabetic ulcers. Ann Plast Surg 1992: Oct;29(4):328-31.
Weiss DS, et al. Electrical stimulation and wound healing. Arch Dermatol 1990;126:222-225.
Dayton PD, Palladino SJ. Electrical stimulation of cutaneous ulcerations. A literature review. J Am Pod Med Assoc 1989; 79:318-321.
Stromberg BV. Effects of electrical currents on wound contraction. Ann Plastic Surg 1988; 21:121-23.
Savitz DA, et al. Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 131:763-73.
Pool R. Is there an EMF-cancer connection? science 1991; 249:1096-98.
Vodovnik L, et al. Modified cell proliferation due to electrical currents. Med Biol Eng Comput 1992; 30:CE21-28.
Humphrey CE, Seal EH. Biophysical approach toward tumor rergression in misc. Science 1959; 130:338-90.
Habal MB. Effect of applied DC currents on experimental tumor growth in rats. J Biomed Mater Res 1980; 14:789-801.
Nordenstrom BEW. Electrochemical treatment of cancer. Variable response to anodic and cathodic fields. Am J Clin Oncol (CCT) 1989; 12:530-36, 1989.
Lyte M, et al. Effects of in vitro electrical stimulation on enhancement and suppression of malignant lymphoma proliferation. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83:116-119.
Morris DM, et al. Electrochemical modification of tumor growth in mice. J surg Res 1992; 53:306-309.
Sersa G, et al. Anti-tumor effect of electrotherapy alone or in combination with interleukin-2 in mice with sarcoma and melanoma tumors. Anti Cancer Drugs 1992; 3:253-260.
Nordenstrom B. Biologically closed electrical circuits: activation of vascular interstitial closed electric circuits for treatment of inoperable cancers. J Bioelectricity 1984; 3:137-53.
Belehradek J, Orlowski S, Poddevin B, et al. Electrotherapy of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice. Eur J Cancer 1981; 27:73-76